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It is important for the reader to understand what this encyclopedia is and what it is not. It is an attempt to document all editions of all music ever published (and some unpublished) for concert and military bands.  It is an attempt to provide biographies of composers whose music has been used by bands, whether the music was composed for band or not.

It is not intended as competition for other music encyclopedias or dictionaries, such as Grove's or Baker's.  The reader will quickly discover that over 80% of the composers and well over 99% of the works listed herein are not mentioned in those volumes.

The value of this encyclopedia, therefore, is that a tremendous amount of information is now available for the first time.

In general, there are two types of music represented: (1) music composed expressly for band, and (2) music first composed for other instrumentations and later adapted for band use.

Lists of composers' works are not limited to music that is currently available; that is covered by other publications.  Rather, this encyclopedia is an historical record, and the advantages are many indeed.  Thanks to the considerable efforts of the author and contributors (and often the editor), hundreds of biographies of obscure composers are included.

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Defining "Band"

A band is generally thought of as a group of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments, with the proportions thereof not rigidly defined (despite numerous efforts to encourage standardization).   Band is so loosely defined that practically any combination of the families of instruments mentioned above can be called a band.

There are exceptions, however, to the exclusive use of these instruments.  In a large concert-type band, one often sees a string bass or even a cello.  But, in those bands the string instruments constitute a very small minority.  By way of comparison, a symphony orchestra is made up of two-thirds string instruments and also has brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.  Therein lies the basic difference between a band and an orchestra.

Other evidence of the rather flexible definition of band is seen in ensembles called dance bands, rock bands, and so forth, which often have string instruments.  Technically speaking, these groups should be referred to as orchestras.

Obviously, band is a generic name.  For the purpose of this encyclopedia, a band is either a concert band of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments or (to use the British term) a military band.

One type of band not represented here is the British style brass band, which excludes woodwind instruments.  This is a type of organization which has a history all its own and is deserving of its own encyclopedia.  Perhaps such an encyclopedia will be developed some day, or their composers and music might be included in future editions of this encyclopedia.

In the English language, concert bands and military bands are known by many other names.  To name just a few:
  • Wind and percussion orchestra
  • Wind and percussion ensemble
  • Symphonic band
  • Symphonic winds
  • Symphony of winds
  • Symphony band
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Other Music NOT Included

Titles of British-style brass band works are not generally listed, because it was clearly beyond the scope of this endeavor to include that vast library of works.  Exceptions are made if a prominent composer wrote an occasional piece for brass band.  In these instances, the works are not assigned numbers, and the notation "[for brass band]" follows the listing.

Another group of titles not included are the works of anonymous composers.  (These may be included in future editions.)  If a composer incorporated traditional or folk melodies in his works, they are of course listed with the composer's works.

Also not included are the countless unpublished medleys of songs which have been arranged for special events.  In published pieces where extensive use of several of one specific composer's (or several composers') works have been made, however, they are listed along with the original composers' (or compilers') works.

An undetermined number of composers could not be included because they or their publishers did not respond to inquiries.

The limited number of works of numerous South American, Eurasian, or African composers are also not included, but not intentionally.  Information was included where possible, but in most cases it is simply not available outside those areas.

Much to the amazement of both author and editor, three large publishers (two British, one American) chose not to answer inquiries.  As a result, the full names of many composers could not be learned.  This lack of cooperation was most unfortunate, but it is hoped that those publishers will become aware of the usefulness of this encyclopedia and be of assistance in the future.

All other music used by concert or military bands is included except for the highly specialized football marching band shows.  These were not included because they are not used for general marching, such as in parades, and because they are almost never used in concerts.

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Original Works, Arrangements, and Transcriptions

Only a composer's original works are listed under his or her name. If those original works were arranged (or transcribed) by someone else, those persons, if known, are noted in the listings.  If no arranger is listed for a work, it must be assumed that (a) the work was prepared for band by the composer, or (b) the name of the person who made the arrangement or transcription could not be determined.

If a person was known as both a composer and an arranger (or transcriber), only his original works are listed under his or her name.  His or her arrangements (or transcriptions) of the music of other composers are listed under the other composers' names.  For example, John Philip Sousa's arrangement of Kaiser Franz Josef Marsch, by Eduard Strauss, is listed under Strauss rather than Sousa.

An arrangement and a transcription are two different things, but not all authorities agree on the precise definitions.  However, most authorities distinguish between the two as follows:

  • Generally speaking, an arrangement is a musical composition that has been modified by another person.  The amount of modification can vary greatly.  One example of an arrangement would be a song for voice and piano that was changed into a dance tune by giving it much new treatment.  Another example of an arrangement would be a medley of several tunes in which the arranger has added material of his own, perhaps in an introduction, an ending, or transitional material for going from one melody to the next.

  • A transcription is a work which has been adapted from one medium to another with no new material added.  The original composer's melodies, harmonies, etc., are kept intact.  If, for instance, a Bach organ work is adapted for orchestra, or if a Tchaikowsky orchestral work is adapted for band, note for note, those are transcriptions.  [The term transcribing is also used when ancient music notation has been converted to modern notation, but that meaning is not implied here.]

  • In many cases, the actual music listed in these pages was not available for study, or publishers' catalogs did not make the distinction between arrangements and transcriptions.  For the sake of simplicity, therefore, all such works are listed as arrangements.
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Real Names and Pseudonyms

In headings, composers are listed by their real names, using the first names, nicknames, or initials by which they are best known.  Their real names, pseudonyms, and stage names are given in the text and/or the lists of works. Pseudonyms and stage names do appear in headings, but the reader is referred to the real names with "see..." notes.

Pseudonyms are often kept secret by composers and their associates, so it is probable that some went undetected by the author, contributors, and editor.  Publishers are generally not quick to disclose the pseudonyms used by those with whom they do business.

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To avoid unnecessary duplication in citing books in the references which follow composers' biographies, only the authors' (if applicable) names and book titles are given.  Dates, publishers' names, and cities of publication may be found in the Bibliography.

References are not given if the information presented in the biographies was drawn from the personal knowledge of the author, contributors, or editor.  Neither are references given in cases where many sources were consulted and it would have seemed facetious to list them all.

In citing old music magazines, page numbers are not noted.  In many cases, page numbers were not known; a researcher will often have unidentified clippings in his or her file, and it would have been a formidable task to have been more exact.

As for extinct magazines such as Metronome, Jacobs' Band [or Orchestra] Journal, The Musical Courier, etc, the page numbers were omitted for a different reason.  This was done deliberately by the editor to encourage more band research.  When a researcher consults one of those old magazines, he or she invariably becomes fascinated and wants to study the entire issue.  In the process, the material being sought will not only be found but will also be placed in the desired perspective.

Page numbers of books are not noted.  Reputable books have indexes, except for some which are encyclopedic in nature, and in either case the material referred to can be located readily.

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It must be stated emphatically that the length of a composer's biography is not an indication of that composer's importance or standing in the music world.  The biographies of the greatest of composers, e.g., Bach, Mozart, et al, are relatively short, as there is already an abundance of biographical and musicological data available in other sources.

By way of comparison, little-known composers, some heretofore unknown to all but the most knowledgeable band historians, were given more space when there was sufficient data available.  This was in keeping with the philosophy of the late Robert Hoe, Jr., who produced LP records of many obscure composers [see The Hoe Heritage Series of LP Records].  In most cases, information on those composers is not found in any other book currently in print.

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Publishing Information

Publishing information on musical compositions is given when known, but the absence of this information does not necessarily mean that the compositions were unpublished.

Where several editions of a composition are cited, the publishers are listed alphabetically rather than chronologically.  This was necessary because in many cases the dates of publication were not known, and estimating dates could have led to serious errors.  In cases where compositions were known to be unpublished, the dates of composition are given (if known).

It should be noted that the year of copyright shown on a piece of published band music might not be the actual date it was composed.  There are several reasons for this.  Obviously, it takes time for a publisher to edit and prepare a piece of music for printing.  When a work is published in several different instrumentations, such as band, orchestra, and piano, the piano edition is often issued first because it is the simplest to prepare.  A band edition, which might be arranged at a later date, could possibly bear the copyright date of the earlier piano edition.

Copyright dates appearing on music are often misleading, especially when one publisher acquires the holdings of another and re-publishes the first publisher's music.  The second publisher will usually use the first publisher's copyright date on the later editions, since the copyrights are merely re-assigned to the second publisher.  On the other hand, if the second publisher elects to make changes, he might re-copyright it and affix a new copyright date.  This is another reason why it was decided to list publishers alphabetically.

Unless otherwise noted, the publisher Fischer, as noted throughout this encyclopedia, is understood to mean Carl Fischer, not his brother, August Emil Fischer.  A.E. published only a very small amount of band music.  In the rare cases where composers were published by both Carl and A.E., this is indicated in the listings.

Putting titles in proper alphabetical order was difficult.  Alphabetizing has never been completely standardized in the English language, and publishing houses often develop their own sets of rules.  Integrity Press has one rule: common sense.  Listing titles in so many languages brought about some peculiar circumstances.  In the lists of works (not the index), titles are listed as they appear on the actual music (or in catalogs).  For example, Sousa's most famous march appears in the text as The Stars and Stripes Forever, not Stars and Stripes Forever, The.The English equivalents of foreign titles are not given unless they appear that way on the music or unless confusion might otherwise result.  Numerical titles are listed alphabetically as though they were spelled out in English.

Diacritical marks were not used, simply because they were not always shown on the actual music or in publishers' catalogs.  This is particularly true of music printed in the United States.  Adding diacritical marks would have invited many errors and would possibly have changed the meanings of certain words.

The use of capital and lower case letters in titles gave rise to many questions, because rules for capitalization are not the same in all languages.  Thus it was decided to present titles as they appear on the music or in listings available to the author.

In the interest of historical accuracy, no attempt was made to alter titles which might be distasteful to some readers.  The use of degrading titles such as Coonville Cullud Band March or The Pickaninnie's Frolic would be unthinkable in today's society, but they were commonplace a century ago.  In this encyclopedia, the titles are presented as they were seen by the musicians who were using the music.

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Resources -- Music

The most important source of data on the music came from the music itself.  The vast archives of the Library of Congress were, of course, examined in great detail.  Several large personal collections of music, such as those of the late Robert Hoe, Jr. and Leonard B. Smith, were primary sources.  Also studied was the most extensive private collection of band music in the United States, the Chatfield (Minnesota) Brass Band Lending Library.

The large libraries of several bands which have been in existence for many years, such as the U.S. Marine Band, the Allentown (Pennsylvania) Band, the Ringgold Band (Reading, Pennsylvania), the Scots and Grenadier Guards Bands of Britain, and the U.S. Military Academy Band, were also researched.  Study of the music library of the British Broadcasting Corporation was also most helpful.  The late Robert Hoe, Jr. personally examined those collections.  He wished to make his findings available some day and put this task in the hands of the author.

Information from publishers was also very helpful, as was the study of hundreds of old publishers' catalogs and advertisements that are the property of band historians around the world.   Recent music publications, as reported in current music magazines, were monitored carefully.

Band historians, knowing that documentation of a sadly neglected element of music history was forthcoming, were most generous in sharing their private catalogs with the author and the editor.

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Resources -- Biographical

The largest amount of biographical information came from band historians, chiefly those who were friends of the late Robert Hoe, Jr.  Numerous biographical sketches had been published on the jackets of his Heritage of the March series of LP recordings, and these marked the beginning of a massive effort to gather data.

Band historians have a unique informal network, and for the most part they remain in touch through the mail.  The author and editor have been part of this network for many years.  As news of the need for information went out, data poured in.

Since all but the most prominent band personalities have been ignored by music dictionaries, lovers of band music have been openly gratified with the knowledge that the curtain of musicological snobbery was about to be lifted somewhat.  It was John Philip Sousa, one of the greatest of all American composers and conductors, who preached that artistic snobbery was one of the most vicious forms of social behavior.

Band historians also communicate through music organizations and their newsletters.  Most of these organizations specialize in band matters, but organizations such as the Sonneck Society provide a much broader perspective.  Newsletters and journals of the various organizations were essential to this project.  Much biographical data was found in publications of the International Military Music Society (Band International) and Windjammers Unlimited (Circus Fanfare).  One particularly fruitful resource was a private paper called the Boombah Herald.  Another was Band Fan, newsletter of the Detroit Concert Band.

Also of considerable usefulness was the American Bandmasters Association's Journal of Band Research.

A highly useful block of biographical information came from Kenneth Berger's Band Encyclopedia, the landmark volume published in 1960 and now treasured by those interested in band history.  This was the start of what could have been a monumental contribution to grass roots music history, but unfortunately it fell by the wayside for lack of sufficient backing by several splintered band organizations.  Had it been nurtured and allowed to develop into its full potential, The Heritage Encyclopedia of Band Music might not have been necessary.

Music magazines published roughly between 1878 and 1950 were extremely helpful.  Biographical information found therein was essential to the development of this encyclopedia, but extracting the information in small fragments was a very tedious process.  It is tragic that most libraries do not have complete sets of such journals as The Musical Courier, Metronome, Jacobs' Band [and Orchestra] Monthly, and The Leader.

Some libraries, historical societies, and museums have files on band personalities, particularly those who were local celebrities.  Since these files are not widely known, it is up to a researcher to inquire about the existence of such files.  Upon learning of the whereabouts of any material of this nature, the author, contributors, and editor made full use of it.

Another source of biographical information came from correspondence with relatives, associates, and friends of composers.  Knowledge of their whereabouts came as the result of hundreds of inquiries, and it must be acknowledged that, despite great efforts, perhaps only the surface has been scratched.

It goes without saying that maximum use was made of existing music dictionaries and encyclopedias.  These volumes were especially helpful in finding data on those who influenced the composers' lives and careers.  As mentioned earlier, however, the vast majority of individuals important to band history have not been represented in those volumes.

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Readability and simplicity were the keywords in the design of this encyclopedia.  The author and editor gave considerable thought to the overall structure, and it is hoped that the result is a text in which items may be found quickly.

Every attempt was made to keep the wording and punctuation simple and direct for the benefit of readers in foreign countries.  Abbreviations, the scourge of the casual or infrequent reader, were kept to an absolute minimum.

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For the Future

If nothing else, this encyclopedia will certainly point out the need for further research on band composers and their works.  The many listings of works which lack biographies of their creators are ample evidence of that.

This encyclopedia will also point out the need for a definitive study of music publishers.  Music publishing is a rapidly-changing field in which smaller firms are swallowed up by larger firms and dozens of others go out of business.  There is no centralized record of these developments.

Much valuable history is lost when a publisher is absorbed by another or leaves the field, because business records, catalogs, journals, and old music are eventually discarded or destroyed.  There are countless horror stories about how the records of one publisher were disposed of when taken over by another.  [One of the most puzzling situations in the music world is the disappearance of most issues of The Musical Messenger (1891-1924, with two interruptions), which was published by the Fillmore Brothers of Cincinnati (acquired by Carl Fischer in 1951).  A complete run of this journal, which contained countless detailed stories of band personalities, could probably not be assembled even if the holdings of every library in the United States, including the Library of Congress, were combined.]

Initially, this encyclopedia began with biographies and lists of works of 750 composers and ended up with the lists of works of over 8,000 composers and biographies of less than half.  Certain limitations are obvious, but the end result is a testament to the author's (and editor's) tenacity and eagerness to enlist the help of fellow researchers.  As additional information is brought to their attention, it will be recorded for future use.

Care was taken to include only information which could be substantiated.  The author and editor were particularly suspicious of secondary sources.  Every researcher is painfully aware of how inaccuracies in primary sources are amplified or embellished in secondary sources.

Band music is truly a fertile field for musicologists, and a challenge will be seen in even a cursory look through these pages.

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An Invitation

The author spent over twenty years compiling data for this encyclopedia, building on biographies and lists of works compiled by the late Robert Hoe, Jr. This web version of the encyclopedia includes the results of exhaustive research about composers and music for band by the author and a loyal group of associates.

Despite vigorous efforts to include all music published for [concert or military] band, numerous composers and works have no doubt been passed over simply because they were unknown to the author and editor. Biographies of those little-known composers could not be written if the composers were not mentioned in the many scattered music journals available to researchers or if they were known only to a few people. Lists of works could not be compiled if the works were not mentioned in those journals, publishers' catalogs, or if they were privately produced and known only in certain localities.

In cases where composers and their works not listed, the author and editor would welcome information from subscribers so that these can be included in the data.. Content is dynamic and instantly available to subscribers ...Please email information, suggestions, and suggested corrections to the author

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